Plastir Number 51


Herbert Alexander SIMON is one of the first researchers to develop an in-depth reflection on information science, cognitive science and the development of artificial intelligence (AI). PhD in Political Science from the University of Chicago, winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1978, he quickly developed theories (bounded rationality) to oppose the substantive rationality and joined the cognitive psychology by applying it to the notion of intentionality linked to the decision-action process and the human-machine interaction. Professor of Political Science at the Illinois Institute of Technology, then at the Graduate School of Industrial Administration at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, he will develop the links between economic systems and behavioral science, before receiving the Turing Award with A. Newell in 1975 for his pioneering work in AI. Indeed, he is one of the fathers of the AI ​​insofar as he will set out with Hawkins since the fifties a theorem solving the problems related to input-output matrices and will perceive the considerable stakes of computer science and technology. A field that he will call artificial intelligence! He will continue his career as an economics expert with Presidents L. Johnson and R. Nixon in the 1960s, where he will be a member of the US Academy of Sciences. An eco-citizen before the hour, he will continue to advocate for active citizenship and show the way to the immense potential of the information sciences and their links with the study of human behavior. He has published numerous works translated into most of the world’s languages ​​(deposited in the H. Simon Memorial of Carnegie-Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Penn USA), but remains insufficiently known in France despite the support of many researchers in economics or economics, in social psychology (Parthenay, Demailly) and systematics like JL Le Moigne who, through the MCX network, broadly disseminate his thought. We echo this in PLASTIR, with a republication in 2011 of his beautiful article on the unity of arts and sciences (Plastir 22, 03/2011) and in this issue about his talk in 1984 at a symposium entitled « Sciences of the intelligence, sciences of the artificial » which raised already through edifying remarks and exchanges provided with the participants, burning questions of topicality if one judges by the title of the official report recently issued by our mathematician and deputy Cédric Villani: « Giving the meaning of AI« . In fact, the very title of his intervention sets the tone and opens perspectives that have not ceased to develop, even if it is necessary to contextualize the words of Simon. It is completed in the bottom of the text by the following sentence « This is another possible approach to the universe of man, which allows us to calmly consider the prospects of Artificial Intelligence. » Indeed, if obviously some approaches (new computer languages, psychological theories, information processing, simulation) were still nascent, we feel from the outset in the conduct of the speech at the same time humility (on the methodological remarks or scientific hypotheses) and a clear vision of the future impact of AI on society and human psychology. Simon thus argues that computer simulation studies must take into account the internal structure and dynamics of the process under consideration (with regard to artificial neural networks in particular) and not be content with simply plagiarizing it. Similarly, in relation to learning relations with Piagetian models of development, where he recalls the main lesson of systems theory, whose behavior will be very different if we observe the effects in the long term or in the short term. Simon also clearly differentiates the information processing of neuroanatomical theories: « … no more than 19th century chemistry was a theory of atomic physics« , he says. With regard to motivation and problem solving, the human factor is always predominant in its approach as well as taking into account advances in « the psychology of information processing » and advances in neuroscience. Herbert A. Simon will continue, as it is constantly advocated at PSA, to build bridges (« Models of thought » about the UNDERSTAND program: verbal description of a task and establishment of a representation); the socio-economic aspects of productivity linked to the development of computers (industrial democracy) and the theories of limited rationality or ‘satisfecum’ resulting from it, are not left out. The relations between cybernetics and artificial intelligence are discussed notably through Dupuy’s questions and D. Andler’s controversy about the maximalist aspirations (all-powerful computers) of AI, to which Simon will respond respectively on the fact that sources of AI are clearly identified in the proliferation of cybernetics (Von Neumann architectures) around the 1950s and precede the separation of the two disciplines for the first, and the relativity of major scientific controversies such as those related to the revolution Darwinian, not to mention the mythical sources (referring to Dreyfuss and Lighthill’s report about AI) that fuel science. On the whole, a rich text in which one sees the emergence of the science of complex systems and the development of AI. It continues in an appendix with a background on the context of the conference and an exciting set of questions and answers related to new debates or comments on the subject.


Joëlle DAUTRICOURT is a graphic artist and sculptor. She conducts research and artistic experimentation at the sources of writing. After studying classical and modern literature at the Sorbonne, she met avant-garde movements at the St Petri Gallery Archive of Experimental and Marginal Art, opened by Jean Sellem in Lund, Sweden, then she leads since 1989 an experiment around the question « What is writing?”, from the birth of symbols to the new technologies of computer graphics. In the early 80s, she gives lectures on the history of writing under the title of the World’s Writings and at the same time gives herself to poetic-plastic experiences on the physics and dynamics of writing, through Drawings-Scripture and the Imaginary Scriptures, Graphical Formulas and Black Books. With the Written Bones, she discovers that « form and matter are in the bone only a slow and same thought » (in Joëlle Dautricourt, Sculptures, Paris, 1986). Then from stamp to copy art, she expresses « in two words, the creation » as written Gladys Fabre, in the generation of Wordworkworks carried out from 1992 to 1996. The word, WORD, is subject to work, WORK (see PLASTIR 17, 12/2009). She has been exhibiting since 1980 in France, in particular at the Galerie Antoine Candau in 1987, at the Canon Center des Champs-Élysées in 1996, where she received sponsorship from Canon to produce a series of works on photocopier, at Microsoft France in 1997 , and at the Sainte-Croix Abbey Museum of Les Sables d’Olonne in 1998 after a residency in an artist’s residence. She has also participated in numerous group exhibitions in Italy, Japan, and the United States in the Ruth and Marvin Sackner Archive of Concrete and Visual Poetry, as well as in the « Women of the Book » exhibitions curated by Judith Hoffberg. She has made many performances using voice, plot and movement, including the 1st Salon du Livre at the Grand Palais and the 1st Manifesto of the Book of Artist / Book-Object at the Center Georges Pompidou in 1981, as well as at the 1st Paris Performing Arts Festival at the Donguy Gallery in 1982. From 1995 to 1997, she obtained from the Delegation of Visual Arts a training in new technologies of the image at the Atelier-Image-Informatique of the National School of Arts Decorative in Paris. At the dawn of the year 2000, she launches her first website on the internet, Scripturality Workshop. In 2002, she co-signed with Sophie Charrier the launch of Big Bang Fäerie, the first optical theater web created by Big Bang Art Inner Movement. Since the late 90’s, she has explored scripturality and graphic poetry in the dual lineage of avant-garde book and typography and copyists of Hebrew, and she received in 1999 the first scholarship for creation Artistic Alliance Universal Israelite. In 2006, she created a stained glass window in memory of child victims of the Shoah for the construction of the new Maayan Center Synagogue. His work The Book of Happy Writing was exhibited at the Museum of Art and History of Judaism in Paris in 2010 and the HUC-JIR Museum in New York in 2012. The American magazine « Moment » put it in the spotlight on the front cover of his May / June 2012 issue with an eight-page article. The work was presented in video projection during a conference of the artist at the Academy Art Museum in Easton, Maryland in June 2013. Nanto, its emblem of Gallic village created for the 12th Convivial Art Cinema Rurality, was inaugurated in Nannay in the Nièvre (France) in August 2012. In October 2017, Joëlle Dautricourt has completed the writing of L’Ecriture Heureuse, a literary work composed of ten texts that punctuate his quest for complementarity between graphic expression and verbal expression. His writings from 1978 to 2015 were also collected. Suffice to say that his deep work that challenges us requires to gain in amplitude and we want to contribute by making you discover « handwritten frequencies ». Everything is said in the first lines: « Writing is a slow act. The thought is tuned to the rhythm of the hand. There is a way to slow down and feel breathing. The eyes follow the thread unrolled by the feather, are momentarily troubled, fixed on the hair-wire excessively thin that a breath, a dust enough to inflect. Mirror with a gesture. Vibrations in search of sound. Closer to becoming. In the meantime suspended from life in life. There is the book. Like an infinite block. A time gap where everything possible hovers.. « , and beautifully illustrated. What more, if not let you discover the work of the graphic designer and the poetess that we had published about the roll of Golemah in Plastir 18, 03/2010)? Filigree, the scriptural work insufficiently highlighted in our too iconic societies where typography tends to become an obsolete value, and a little like in « The book of happy writing », an explosion of signs that speak to us…


Bernard TROUDE is a sociologist, PhD in Art Sciences from University Paris I and researcher in several laboratories of the Sorbonne University Descartes Paris V, notably at the CEAQ (Center for Studies on the Current and the Daily). He is also a general engineer, professor of design sciences and industrial aesthetics, co-director of « Re-thinking the ordinary », plastic artist and contributor of numerous journals such as Plastir, Ganymede, Cahiers de l’idiotie(Montreal), European Notebooks of Imagination, Arts and Sciences or Ethic, Medecine & Public Health. He was particularly interested in the nature of the object – its importance, its meaning, its decay – and the man – his place in society, his relationship to medicine and cognition -. He recently joined the University Laboratory of Cognitive Science in San Francisco where he contributes to the General Medical Journal of Normal (near Chicago, USA) which brings together all medical university editions. The author has published several articles in PLASTIR, the latest (PLASTIR 45, 03/2017) relating to the plastic notion of donation. In this issue, he discusses the controversial brain volume difference between the two sexes in a non-controversial way. He summarizes his approach in these terms: “In biology, philosophy or laboratory experimentation, the formulation is essential. To an almost visible reality, it is rather interesting to intervene on the minimal data that can change everything in action, understanding and results for the explanation of a fact. Refusing to leave aside a notorious but small difference is still refusing to allow this difference in brain volume to be locked up in the terms of a Nature or worse of a singular mentality. The development in this text sheds light on possible contingencies, on a logic with which the why of certain differences between female brain and male brain can be explained; other strategies of meaning for a datum of the cerebral volume difference. It is a discourse on an index, not yet exploited, not aimed at generalities, integrating into it perspectives as globalities leading to continuous evolution. It is from this difference that the scale and the different resources arise from the cognitive « medium », the space of plasticity. Let’s study on this new deal: how can the difference of volume be the source of effects? Various words: what does this difference in volume give access to? Here, hermeneutics was built on this difference in volume: on the one hand the generality of a knowledge of the brain and its figuration, and on the other a look at the specificity of the volume gap, male brain and female brain, new gives for the appreciation of cognitive functions.” Following discussion with the author, who has full knowledge of the concepts of social sex or neurosexism presented by the neurobiologist C. Vidal, there is no judgment or claim sexist in this text. It is to be appreciated in its hermeneutical dimension and in terms of pure data. This is not necessarily easy insofar as the sociocognitive plan is concerned, however, it is a question of entering a universe or a space of singular plasticity where one considers the possible sense of a difference of volume … A delicate exercise, but one I’m sure Plastir’s readers will gladly bend.


Claude BERNIOLLES, a law graduate, is a poet, philosopher and essayist. He contributed literally to many issues of PLASTIR (see Summary), dealing with works by Bonnefoy, Anatole France, Barthes, Wittgenstein and more recently Cervantes (PLASTIR 42, 06/2016, PLASTIR 44, 12/2016). In this issue, he is engaged in a different exercise, which is related to the story or travel diary … in Yunnan Province. In turn poetic, anecdotal, curious, humorous or derived from the novel with the presence of Murphy, this text certainly makes us travel and not only by the thought … One indeed borrows the sinuous roads spanned by Marco Polo – « If I had thought to be perched at an altitude of 1900 meters in an ex-mountain tribe, the Bay race, miles from all known world, perhaps even where Marco Polo had passed with his caravan in the thirteenth century on the road of silk going to Beijing …« , time when one could meet the unicorns (who would be according to Caroutch of the Asian shamanism specifies the author) …, one discovers in the disorder the quadrilateral of Dali, » the street of the foreigners Hugo Lu , called precisely Yangren Jie, Strangers’ Street, in the distance the visible Hongshi Shan mountain is veranda, the Dali nan on the south gate, further away the Erhai Lake and the stone statues representing the Gilin and finally a province l imitrophe of Yunnan called Guizhou where have been inventoried, rites shamans painted on the rock faces of the great red cliff Shizu, site on which we had made a number Plastir Franco-Chinese including photos and exceptional testimonials (Plastir 37-12- 2014). In the end, it is the rhythm of the crossing and the narration which prevail … leaving guess all the richness of the Asian cradle and its distant banks. Let’s get carried away…

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